Glycobiology

Tools to advance in your glycobiology research

The study of glycan production, life, and structure is known as glycobiology (carbohydrates). Glycans are saccharides that, through the process of glycosylation, can be enzymatically attached to a variety of biological molecules. Glycobiology is a complicated and dynamic subject of research that combines enzymology, molecular and cellular biology, simple organic chemistry, and materials science. It is attracting a lot of attention. Glycobiology is a rapidly expanding field of study that is critical for both cellular biology and studies of carbohydrate-based drugs and therapeutics.

Antibodies

We offer a comprehensive range of monoclonal, polyclonal, and secondary antibodies. All our antibodies provide high levels of specificity and affinity to target antigens. We also provide a range of cell line controls for reliable antibody validation.

Heparan Sulfate Antibodies

Heparan Sulfate (HS) is a challenging target for antibody binding, and there are a limited number of effective antibodies available for HSPG research. We supply the three following monoclonal antibodies (mAb): 10E4, 3G10, and JM403, for strong binding in a variety of applications.

Custom Polyclonal Antibody Services

Chondroitin Sulfate Antibodies

Along with our Chondroitinase ABC, we also supply three monoclonal chondroitin sulfate (CS) stub antibodies that recognise unsulfated (0S)4-sulfated (4S) & 6-sulfated (6S) Chondroitin & Dermatan Sulfate containing proteoglycans, following Chondroitinase ABC digestion of proteoglycans or perineuronal nets. There is no cross-reaction with hyaluronic acid, dermatan sulfate, keratan sulfate and heparan sulfate. These antibodies can be used to detect target antigen in Immunohistochemistry, ELISA, and Western blotting assays.

Furthermore, a range of purified mouse monoclonal antibodies are available to native (undigested) CS: clone: MO-225, clone: CS-56, Clone: 2H6, and clone: LY111, each uniquely recognizing a validated epitope, allowing the end-user to analyse biologically significant variations in CS structure.

Keratan Sulfate Antibodies

We offer varieties of keratan sulfate (KS) monoclonal antibodies that are tested for use in ELISA, Immunofluorescence, Immunohistochemistry, Radioimmunoassay, and Western Blotting assays. For example, three monoclonal antibodies (Clone R-10G), (Clone 5D4), and (Clone 373E1) are now available.

Hyaluronic Acid Antibodies Replacement

Hyaluronic Acid Binding Protein

Hyaluronan/Hyaluronic Acid (HA) is non-immunogenic, because of its simple, conserved composition and ubiquitous expression in all animals with a developed immune response. As a result, there are no antibodies that specifically recognize HA, so traditional immunological methods of detecting of HA are not possible. Therefore, we offer biotinylated HABP (Versican G1 domain) which binds specifically to HA and can be used like an antibody to detect and measure HA in ELISA, Immunohistochemistry or Blotting applications. It does not cross-react to other Glycosaminoglycans or to DNA. We introduce HABP in purified and biotinylated forms.

Ganglioside and Glycolipid Antibodies

Glycolipids are lipids that have a carbohydrate connected to them via a glycosidic bond and are found on the outer surface of all eukaryotic cell membranes. They keep the membrane stable and aid cellular recognition. Gangliosides are glycolipids containing one or more sialic acids attached to the sugar chain and are linked to the brain and nervous system. The ganlioside and glycolipid antibodies can be used for immunoassay techniques such as: TLC, FC, ELISA, ICC and IHC.

Sugar Chain mAb Antibodies

The sugar chain antibodies are vital in evaluating the biological function of certain sugar chains. We offer a wide range of sugar chains monoclonal antibodies for glycobiology research. We now provide sugar chains monoclonal antibodies, such as Clone RGM21, RGM22, PGM34, HGM44 and HIK1083. View more

Anti-Sugar chain mAb

(Clone RGM21)

RGM21 is a mouse monoclonal antibody that detects mucin-type carbohydrate antigens that contain a blood group H (type 1 chain) sequence and was produced against mucins isolated from normal rat gastric mucosa.

Anti- Sugar chain mAb

(Clone RGM22)

RGM22 is a mouse monoclonal antibody that detects mucin-type carbohydrate antigens with a terminal GalNAc1-3Gal sequence and was produced against mucins isolated from normal rat gastric mucosa.

Anti- Sugar chain mAb

(Clone PGM34)

PGM34 is a mouse monoclonal antibody that detects mucin-type carbohydrate antigens with a 6-sulfated blood grope H (type 2 chain) sequence isolated from normal pig gastric mucosa.

Anti- Sugar chain mAb

(Clone HGM44)

HGM44 is a mouse monoclonal antibody that detects mucin-type carbohydrate antigens with a blood group Lewis b sequence and was produced against mucins isolated from normal human gastric mucosa.

Anti- Sugar chain mAb

(Clone HIK1083)

HIK1083 is a mouse monoclonal antibody that detects mucin-type carbohydrate antigens with a peripheral alpha-linked N-acetylglucosamine and was raised against mucins isolated from normal rat gastric mucosa.

Enzymes

Glycosaminoglycans degrading Enzymes

For glycobiology research and other applications, We offer a wide selection of specialized enzymes. Chondroitinase, heparinase, hyaluronidase, keratanase, and endo- and exo-glycosidases are among of our glycosaminoglycan (GAG) degrading enzymes.

Enzyme Activity Assays offered by AMS Bio

Heparinase (Heparin Lyase Enzymes)

Heparinases (Heparin Lyase enzymes) cleave the glycosidic bond between hexosamines and uronic acids and are known to selectively cleave heparin and HS chains via an elimination mechanism. Heparinase enzymes produce a 232 nm absorbable double bond on the non-reducing end of uronic acid, which can be used to identify oligosaccharide and disaccharide compounds. We offer the heparinase enzymes [Heparinase I, Heparinase II (Heparitinase II), and Heparinase III (Heparitinase I)] that are isolated from Flavobacterium heparinum, and recombinant Flavobacterium heparinum.

Chondroitinase ABC

Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycans (CSPGs) are involved in the inhibition of axon regeneration after various forms of damage to the Central Nervous System, including stroke and spinal cord injury. The enzyme Chondroitinase ABC (purified from Proteus vulgaris) degrades these CSPGs, and has been shown to promote functional recovery and neural regeneration in addition to its role as a tool in glycoanalysis.

Furthermore, enzymes of chondroitinase AC-I, and chondroitinase B from natural and recombinant Flavobacterium heparinum are available.

Assays and Kits

Heparanase and Hyaluronidase Activity Kits

We offer Razie assay kits for measuring heparanase and hyaluronidase enzyme activity in cell culture supernatants, human plasma, biological fluids, and tissue samples. Our kits have been used in studies on anti-inflammatory responses, kidney disease, and cancer. The enzymes heparanase and hyaluranidase both play essential roles in the extracellular matrix (ECM). Our kits solve the standardisation and performance issues associated with traditional measurement techniques for these types of enzymes.

These enzyme activity assays work in conjunction with our ELISA kits. ELISA kits measure the amount of a specific antigen detected by specific antibodies (and will provide an answer that includes inactive forms of the enzyme in question), whereas these activity assays assess the activity of relevant enzymes in the system as measured by substrate degradation.

Martin et al. ( 20152017) used our heparanase activity assay in conjunction with one of our heparanase ELISAs to measure both the quantity and activity of heparanase enzymes in their system.

ELISA Kits

The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is a biochemical test used to detect and quantify compounds such as proteins, peptides, hormones, and antibodies. ELISA is a critical diagnostic tool in both biotechnology and medicine because it uses highly specific antibody-antigen interaction. We offer a wide range of ready-to-use ELISA kits for usage with a wide range of species, target proteins, and sample types, including glycobiology ELISA kits. We provide glycosaminoglycan ELISA kits, such as Heparan Sulfate, Chondroitin Sulfate, Dermatan Sulfate, Keratan Sulfate and Hyaluronic Acid Quantification Kits.

AMS Bio offers ready-to-use ELISA kits

Other kits

Heparin Red® Kit

The Heparin Red Kit is a sensitive and robust assay, used for the direct detection and quantification of heparin in human blood plasma at concentrations in µg/mL, not the effect of heparin on the clotting cascade. Furthermore, the versatility of the heparin red kit can be useful for detection of non-anticoagulant heparins and other sulphated polysaccharides.

Heparin Red® Ultra Kit

The Heparin Red® Ultra is a simple and direct assay for measuring chemical heparin in complex matrices. The kit is ideal for testing heparin concentrations in crude animal extracts and will be highly valuable to the heparin manufacturing sector. Heparin Red® Ultra was found to suppress nucleic acid interference and detect heparin in urine.

Sulfated GAG Quantification Kit

The Sulfated Glycosaminoglycan Quantification Kit uses the metachromatic dye 1, 9‐dimethylmethylene blue (DMMB)  to quantify the amount of sulfated GAGs in the standard and test samples. Samples may need a preliminary digestion step with our 280560-TDK kit to remove the protein portion of proteoglycans.

Tissue Digestion Kit for GAG Isolation

The Tissue Digestion Kit for Glycosaminoglycan Isolation is designed to digest small tissue samples, serum, plasma and other biological fluids to enable measurement of glycosaminoglycans with our 280560-N kit, by removing the protein portion of proteoglycans (papain digestion step).

Carbohydrates

We provide carbohydrates of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) with full length polysaccharides, oligosaccharides, and disaccharides for glycobiology research. We offer GAGs with high-grade purified heparan sulfate, chondroitin sulfate, dermatan sulfate, keratan sulfate, and hyaluronic acid standards from several sources.

Glycoselective Bioaffinity Lectins

Plant-derived Lectins

Lectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins with high specificity for specific sugar moieties. Lectins are useful for not only physiological and functional studies but also for research on complex carbohydrate sugar chains. We offer vast diversity of plant-derived lectins products that are compatible with general-purpose mechanisms, have rapid analysis, and can analyze sugars with HPLC.

Recombinant Prokaryotic Lectins

We provide Recombinant Prokaryotic Lectins (RPLs) of exceptional quality for use as glycoselective tools. Mutagenesis methods were used to expand the product range, resulting in novel RPLs with improved carbohydrate-binding properties. RPLs make it possible to analyze intact glycosylated biomolecules in a simple, rapid, and sensitive way. Many of the issues previously linked to plant-derived lectin products are overcome by recombinant technology. However, plant-derived lectin products offer many advantages as glycoanalytical tools, they still carry with them many limitations.

Note: Heparin Red kit it is not available in North America.