Controlling cell differentiation in a predictable way is a major challenge in stem cell
Although natural retinoids can be used to trigger neuronal stem cell differentiation, they are inherently unstable, leading to partially
differentiated cultures and highly variable result. ec23® synthetic retinoid overcomes these challenges and offers additional features for stem cell differentiation
Benefits of ec23® synthetic retinoid:
- Mimics the activity of natural retinoid
- Immune to the disruptive influence of temperature and light
- Induces neurogenesis with enhanced potency
- Maximises the consistency, reliability and efficiency of neural stem cell differentiation
- Minimises culture heterogeneity
- Increases the biological relevance of your results
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This new synthetic retinoid derivative represent a new chemically and light stable alternative to ATRA that does not degrade and has biological activity similar to ATRA. NMR demostrates the
integrity of ec23® compared to ATRA during
prolonged exposure to light. ATRA shows significant isomerisation and degradation whereas ec23® remains completely intact.
1H NMR (500 MHz) spectrum (δ 5.40-7.80) of ATRA in D16-DMSO
in a glass NMR tube after 3 days in the dark under air (top),
versus 3 days exposure to fluorescent light (bottom).
1H NMR (500 MHz) spectrum (δ 7.20-8.10) of ec23® in D16-
DMSO in a glass NMR tube after 3 days in the dark under air
(top), versus 3 days exposure to fluorescent light (bottom).
ec23® enables the
robust and reproducible differentiation of stem cells and progenitor cells.
With higher stability in tissue culture medium and
more potency as differentiation factor than retinoic acid,
it produces down regulation of markers associated with the pluripotent stem cell phenotype and increased expression of differentiation markers.
Synthetic retinoid ec23® induced differentiation: ec23® is a potent inducer of neurogenesis in adult neuroprogenitor cells.
Rat adult hippocampal progenitor cells (AHPCs) exposed to either 1uM ec23® or ATRA differentiate into neural cell types.
Differentiation induced by exposure to ec23® was consistent and reproducible.
Images show phase micrographs of cells exposed to ATRA and ec23® (top), and ec23® treated cells stained with B-tubulin-III at low and high magnification (bottom).
Synthetic retinoid ec23® is a potent inducer of pluripotent stem
cell differentiation. Human TERA2.cl.SP12 pluripotent stem cells exposed
to either 10uM ec23® or ATRA form populations of terminally differentiated neurons.
Immunocytochemical staining for neurofilament-200 was performed on differentiated cultures and the number of positive cells quantified. Results show that
ec23® is a more potent inducer of neurogenesis than ATRA. In direct comparison to ATRA, we found that synthetic retinoid ec23® induces
larger numbers of neural cells with less variability and with the added advantage of compound stability.
It has been demonstrated that the addition of exogenous retinoid ec23® can significantly enhance neuronal
differentiation of both human neuroprogenitor and human embryonic stem cells (Christie et al., 2010, Journal
of Neuroscience Methods 193 - 239-245) and that embryonal carcinoma stem cells differentiate to become neurons upon incubation with synthetic retinoid ec23®
(Barnard et al., 2009, Chem. Eur. J. 15, 11430 - 11442).
* AMSBIO is the global source for ec23®. ec23® is a registered trade mark of and manufactured by Reinnervate.