Reduction of oxygen results in the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radicals and superoxide.
These are directly responsible for the detrimental effects of oxidative stress.
Generation of reactive oxygen species is linked to a variety of environmental factors like ultraviolet radiation & cigarette smoking.
To counteract the effects of ROS in vivo, there are a number of distinct antioxidant mechanisms in place within the cell,
such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbic acid, and glutathione.
Oxidative stress & associated damage to cellular lipids, proteins and DNA occur when these compensatory mechanisms fail to deal with the increasing
loads of ROS. Elevated levels of ROS contribute to a decline in cellular function, and have been reported to coincide with pathologies including
cancer, cardiovascular disease and neurological disorders.
Oxidative Damage Products
FLARE Assay (Fragment Length Analysis using Repair Enzymes)
Oxidative Damage Enzymes
Mismatch Repair Enzymes